A Basic Guide to Fiqh for Purification (Tahara, Wudhu, Ghusl) and Salah (Prayers)

There are some terminological words which one needs to understand in order to attain full benefit.


Fiqh Literally means understanding. In Islaam it means understanding Quran, Sunnah and its practical application. The Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace be upon him) taught the meaning of the Quran and his Sunnah practically to his companions. The companions passed that knowledge to their students both the text and the meaning. This knowledge further was documented and categorised by the Imaams of Fiqh. Thus it became easier for the common man to act upon Quran and Sunnah with authenticity.

If a matter is not clear as there is differences in interpretations and all the scholars of fiqh unanimously decide on that matter, then what ever they agree upon is known as Ijmah (consensus). Qiyas (analogy) which is also a conditional source of fiqh means when a matter is clearly not mentioned but is similar to another matter in the sense of reasoning. This can be also be done by individual Mujtahadeen (a scholar who have mastered the science of tafsir, hadith, fiqh and the principles of fiqh)


One of the beauties of Islaam is that it does not issue a positive or negative judgement like other religion but each command or prohibition fall into a specific grade. This is of immense benefit for the followers. Altogether there are 5 degrees of prohibition and one degree is indifferent (Mubah).

Degrees of Positive Commands

Degrees of Prohibitive Command

Farz (Prescribed) Haraam (Unlawful)
Wajib (Obligatory) Makrooh Tahreemi (Strongly disliked)
Sunnate Muakkada (Emphasised Sunnah) Isa’at (Detested)
Sunnate Ghair Muakkada (Recommended Sunnah) Makrooh Tanzihi (Disliked)
Mustahabb (Recommended) Khilafe Awla

Mubah (Permissable)

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