Hajj

Hajj

WHAT IS HAJJ

The term ‘Hajj’ means the rendering of certain auspicious rites, accompanied by performing prescribed acts during certain months. These are Shawwal, Zul-Qada and the first ten days of Zul-Hajj. Hajj becomes obligatory on a person once in a lifetime, when the following eight conditions are present:

1. One must be a Muslim.

2. Sane.

3. Mature.

4. Freedom.

5. Hajj can only be performed during the months of Hajj.

6. A person must be able to secure provisions for the journey even though it may suffice only for a modest stay in Makkah only. He should also have enough means for his personal expenses, as well as his family’s expenses (which they would incur during his absence), and necessary assets such as shelter, furniture, instruments of trade etc. In other words Hajj will be incumbent on a person only if he has the financial means over and above these.

7. The ability to secure adequate transport which may be owned by the person, or rented. To be allowed the use of another’s transport or borrowing the same will not make Hajj obligatory on one. This will apply to those who do not reside in Makkah or its surrounding regions, if they are easily able to undertake the journey by foot. If such a person cannot walk, it will be necessary for him to acquire adequate transport.

8. One living in a non-Islamic state has to know that Hajj if Farz. Living in an Islamic state automatically makes this knowledge obligatory because one cannot claim ignorance, as the former may.

Besides these eight pre-requisites, one has to posses the following as well:

1. Sound physical health.

2. Absence of any physical hindrances.

3. A secure passage to Makkah.

4. Expiry of a woman’s Iddat.

5. For a woman the company of a Mahram, (i.e. a male relative to whom marriage is forbidden) is essential. The Mahram male has to trustworthy, san and mature Muslim. The primary concern in any land or sea voyage is the woman’s safety.

 

Faraiz

The obligation of Hajj will be fulfilled by four things:

1. Ihraam and

2. Islam, which are both preliminary clauses. Thereafter the performing of two fundamental injunctions of Hajj, viz:

3. Being in Arafat for even a single moment, while in the state of Ihraam, from midday of the ninth day _of Zul-Hajj) up to the time of Fajr of the Day of Nahr (tenth of Zul-Hajj). In addition the person must not cohabit before this while in Ihraam.

4. The second fundamental injunction is the completion of most of the Tawaafs (circumambulations) of the Ifadah (Ziyaraat) during its time which commences after dawn of the Day of Nahr.

 

Waajibaat

THE WAAJIBAAT OF HAJJ

1. Wearing the Ihraam from any Meeqaat (boundary).
2. Prolonging the stay at Arafaat up to sunset.
3. Staying at Muzdalifah at any time, between, after Fajr of the tenth day to before sunrise of the next day.
4. Stoning the Jamaraat.
5. The sacrificing of an animal for performing the Qaarin or Mutamatti Hajj.
6. Shaving of the head.
7. The shaving of the head within the precincts of the Haram during the days of Nahr.
8. Performing the stoning before the shaving.
9. For the Qaarin or Mutamatti to perform the sacrifice between the acts of stoning and shaving.
10. Performance of the Tawaf of Ziyaraat within the days of Nahr.
11. Performing the Sa’ee between Safa and Marwah.
12. For the Sa’ee to be made after a correct complete Tawaf which was made according to Shari
standards.
13. For a person to perform the Sa’ee on foot unless there is a valid reason.
14. Beginning the Sa’ee at Safa.
15. The Tawaf of Wida (i.e. the farewell Tawaf).
16. Beginning every Tawaaf of the Kaabah from the Hajr Aswad.
17. To begin Tawaaf from the right hand side of the Hajr Aswad (when facing it).
18. For a person without any handicap to perform the Tawaafs on foot.
19. Purifying oneself (for the Tawaafs) from both minor and major impurities.
20. Concealment of the Aurat.
21. If the majority of the Shouts (rounds) at the Tawaaf Ziyaraat were made on the day of Nahr
(tenth) then the remaining few also has to be completed on this day.
22. Abstaining from all forbidden acts such as:
– A man’s wearing of tight fitting garments.
– Covering of a man’s head o face.
– A woman’s allowing a cloth to touch her face.
– Promiscuous talk.
– Committing sins.
– Having arguments and fights.
– Hunting an animal or pointing it out for another to kill.

 

Sunnats

THE SUNNATS OF HAJJ

1. To take a bath even though the person is in the state of menstruation or afterbirth before adorning Ihraam. Alternatively Wudhu may be performed when intending to enter in the state of Ihraam.
2. To wear new, white, upper and lower garments.
3. To apply perfume.
4. To perform two Rakaats Salaat.
5. To increase one’s recitation of the Talbiyah after adorning the Ihraam, in a raised voice (for men) whenever performing Salaat or ascending or descending, the Talbiyah should be read at least thrice continuously whenever commenced.
6. Sending Durood upon Rasulullah (saw).
7. To supplicate for Jannat and the companionship of the pious, together with seeking protection from Jahannam.
8. To take a bath for entering Makkah.
9. Preferably to enter Makkah during the daytime from the door of Mu’alla.
10. To recite Takbeer and Kalima before the Ka’bah.
11. To make any dua one pleases upon sighting the Ka’bah. This dua is most certainly accepted.
12. To perform the Tawaaf on Arrival (Tawaaf Quddom) even though it may not be the month of Hajj.
13. To adorn the upper garment of the Ihraam in such a manner that the right shoulder is exposed. (This is only during the Tawaf and only for men. At other times, especially during Salaat, both shoulders should be covered.)
14. To perform Ramal during the first three rounds of every Tawaf which is to be followed by Sa’ee during the months of Hajj (Ramal means to walk briskly with short steps, moving the shoulders from side to side).
15. To jog between the green lights. This, as well as the aforementioned Ramal, apply to men only. The remainder of the Sa’ee should be completed at a normal moderate walking pace.
16. To perform an abundance of Tawaaf which, for a non-resident of Makkah, is superior to Nafl Salaat.
17. The deliverance of a Khutbah after Zuhr on the seventh day of Zul Hajj. This is a single Khutbah with a seated pause in between, wherein the masses are instructed with the various injunctions of Hajj.
18. To leave Makkah after sunrise on the eighth day and move towards Mina.
19. To spend the night at Mina.
20. To leave Mina for Arafaat after sunrise on the ninth day.
21.Deliverance of two Kutbahs, separated by a seated pause, before the joint Salaat of Zuhr and Asr, which are both performed during the time of Zuhr (with the Imam).
22.To exert oneself during both these occasions in humility before Allaah Ta’ala with humble duas concerning one’s personal needs and well-being, as well as for one’s parents, family and the Muslims in general. Any virtuous dua concerning both the worlds can be made with sincerity.
23. Thereafter, to proceed calmly and peacefully after sunset of the same day (ninth) towards Muzdalifah. Here one should take heed not to be in close proximity at the lower valley near the mountain of Kuza.
24. To spend the night of Nahr (tenth) in Muzdalifah.
25. To spend the days of Mina (tenth, eleventh and twelfth) at Mina with all of one’s belongings (which were brought for the days of Hajj). It is Makrooh Tahrimi to despatch one’s belongings to Makkah beforehand while one is still in Mina.
26. To stone Jamaraat standing in such a position that Mina is towards the right and Makkah towards the left.
27. To stone the Jamaraatul Aqabah each time while mounted upon a conveyance. The first Jamaraat and the middle one should be stoned while on foot.
28. To stand at the centre of the circle while stoning.
29. To stone between sunrise and Zawaal and sunset on the remaining days. It is Makrooh to stone between dawn (Subh Saadiq) and sunrise on the first and fourth days. Similarly it is Makrooh to stone during the nights of all three days. Although stoning at nights is Makrooh, it will be deemed valid since all the nights are subordinate to the days which follow them except the night which comes after the day of Arafaat (which is subordinate to the day proceeding it). Therefore, the stay at Arafaat is valid during this night as well. This is the night on Eid.
30. The most appropriate time for stoning on the first day (tenth) is from after Zawaal up to sunset. From the aforementioned discourse the permissible, reprehensible and preferred times for stoning have been made apparent.
31. It is also Sunnah practice for a Mufrid (i.e. one performing only Hajj) to slaughter an animal and eat from it. It is only permissible to consume from this sacrifice ant those which are optional or of Tamattu or Qiraan (i.e. the sacrifice of a misdemeanour viz. Damm/Jinaayat cannot be consumed by the person offering the sacrifice).
32. It is also Sunnah for a Khutbah (sermon) to be delivered on the day of Nahr (tenth); in which the remaining injunctions of Hajj are elucidated. This is the third Khutba of Hajj.
33. It is also Sunnah to leave Mina before sunset on the twelfth day if one desires to do so. If, however, one is still in Mina after sunset on this twelfth day then he would have erred although no penalty will have accrued against him. If he remains at Mina up to daybreak of the fourteenth day it will be necessary for him to stone on that day.
34. It is also Sunnah to camp at a place called Muhassab (also called Abtah) for a short duration after leaving from Mina.
35. Then one should drink Zam Zam to one’s fill while standing facing the Kaabah and gazing at it. Also to pour some on one’s head and body. Whatever dua a person makes when drinking Zam Zam is accepted, whether it concerns the Dunya or the Aakhira.
36. It is also Sunnah to cling to the Multazam placing the chest and face on it. (The Multazam is that portion of the Kaabah between the Hajr Aswad and the Door). One should also hold the cloth covering of the Kaabah while making any supplication desired.
37. One could also kiss the door frame of the Kaabah on entering, with etiquette and respect. After all this, the only remaining act is one of the most virtuous of deeds which is the visiting of Nabi (saw)’s mausoleum in Madinah and those of his Sahaabah (ra). With this intention in mind one should leave Makkah from the door of Subeeka via the Thania Sufla. A separate section deals with the etiquettes of the visitation of the grave (Ziarat) Insha Allaah.

 

Ifraad

THE SPIRITUAL PERFORMANCE OF HAJJ
METHOD OF IFRAAD HAJJ

When a person intends to begin his Hajj wearing his Ihraam he should enter from the Meeqaat e.g. Raabigh. This is achieved by taking a bath or making Wudhu (the former being preferable) for cleanliness. Even a menstruating woman should take a bath, as well as a woman who is still bleeding after childbirth (if bathing is not harmful for her).

Absolute cleanliness is desirable (Mustahab). This includes the paring of nails, clipping of the moustche, removing underarm and pubic hair, as well applying oil on the head, even though the oil may be scented.

Men should wear one lower garment and one upper garment which should either be new or washed. New white garments are preferable. These garments should not have buttons (nor be tight fitting) since such clothing it Makrooh. One should then apply attar and perform two Rakaats Salaat after which the following dua should be recited.

“O Allaah! I intend to perform Hajj, so ease its performance for me and accept it from me”.

Thereafter the following Talbiyah should be recited:

“I am present, O Allaah, I am present. You have no partner. I am present. Definitely All Praise and Grace are Yours. The entire universe is Yours, You have no partner.”

One should not omit from this any words but if one chooses, the following may be added.

This addition is also Sunnah. Once this Talbiyah has been recited, one has entered the state of Ihraam. Now one should abstain from conjugal relations as well as it’s mention to one’s wife. Promiscuous and loose conversation is also not allowed as well as all forms of sin including disputes and quarrels with one’s fellow travel companions and servants. Also prohibited is the hunting of land animals or even indicating to others which animals to hunt. Wearing tight fitting clothes, a turban or any covering of the head (for man) or face is also not permissible. Using any perfume or shaving of any hair is also not permitted.

Having a bath, sitting in the shade of a tent or umbrella or anything else, and wearing a money belt are allowed during the state of Ihraam.

Recital of the Talbiyah should be increased after every Salaat or when ascending from or meeting a conveyance and at the time of Sehri. It should be recited in a raised voice which is not annoying to others.

Upon reaching Makkah, it is preferable (Mustahab) to have a bath. One should enter Makkah from the door of Mu’alla so as to facing the door of the Kaabah upon entering as a token of respect. It is preferable to enter while still reciting the Talbiyah until one reaches Baabus Salaam (Door of Salaam) at the Masjid of Haram. One should enter thorough this door with utmost humility and meekness while reciting the Talbiyah constantly, bearing in mind the greatness of the place. ‘Allahu Akbar’, the Kalima and Durood upon Nabi (saw) should be recited while being tolerant and clement towards the crowd. Any supplication may be made upon sighting the Kaabah, as these are accepted.

Thereafter, one should face Hajr Aswad, reciting ‘Allahu Akbar’ and the Kalima, raising both hands as in Salaat, and then place the hands upon the stone and to kiss it without a sound. If doing the above is harmful of injurious to oneself or to others, it should be avoided. Rather touch the stone with any object (a stick or the like) and kiss it. Otherwise indicate towards it with both hands from a distance, and then kiss the hands. ‘Allahu Akbar’, the Kalima and ‘Alahmdu lillah’ should be recited together with Durood upon Nabi (saw). Tawaaf of the Kaabah should now be commenced from one’s right-hand side, from the area in line with the door. Men should be in the state of Idhtibaa (i.e. wearing the upper garment below the right armpit throwing both edges upon the left shoulder, thus leaving the right shoulder open).

Seven shauts (rounds) should be made of the Kaabah during which duas can be made. One should walk around the Hateem. The male intending to make Sa’ee between Safa and Marwah after his Tawaaf should make Ramal during the first three rounds of the Tawaaf. Ramal means to walk briskly, moving the shoulders from side to side as a brave warrior would confront the enemy with valour. If a person encounters congestion due to the crowds, he should avoid walking briskly but thereafter proceed briskly whenever possible as this is essential. He should only yield to the crowds for the duration of its congestion, but not longer, as this is the Sunnah practice. This is unlike the kissing of the Hajr Aswan (which is omitted due to restricting crowds) since this practice has the alternative of kissing the hands.

The Istilaam of the Hajr Aswan should be repeated every time one passes by it. With the last Istilaam (the eighth one) and Tawaaf (seven rounds) is terminated together with two Rakaats Salaat at the Maqaame Ibrahim (as) or at any other convenient place within the Masjid. Thereafter dua should be made followed by another Istilaam. This is Tawaaf of Qudoom (arrival). It is Sunnah for any non-resident of Makkah.

The next procedure is to proceed towards Safaa and after reaching a high point from which the Kaabah is visible; ‘Allahu Akbar’ should be recited together with the Kalimah, Talbiyah, Durood upon Nabi (saw) and other dua’s. The hand should be raised and spread out in front of one. Thereafter, one should descend calmly towards Marwah at a moderate pace. Upon reaching the ‘centre of the valley’ (Batn-Waadi) men should jog between the Meelain Akhdarain (i.e. the portion between the green lights – about 40m). After passing this area a normal walking pace should be resumed until reaching Marwah. Here one should repeat what was previously done at Safaa This will now be considered one Shaut or round of the Sa’ee. From Safaa to Marwah is about 405m.

Thereafter, one should return to Safaa, again jogging between the green lights (for man only), thereafter walking naturally until reaching the top of Safaa, and repeating what was done earlier. This will now count as the second Shaut. In a like manner, seven Shouts should be completed (including these two) beginning initially at Safaa and concluding at Marwah. The jogging at the Batn Waadi should be repeated by the men during every one of the seven Shauts.

The Haajji should now reside in Makkah in the state of Ihraam, making Tawaaf whenever possible since Tawaaf is superior to Nafl Salaat for a non-resident of Makkah.

After performing the Fajr Salaat of the eighth day of Zul Hajj, one should lave for Mina. Commence the journey to Mina after sunrise, and it is preferable to perform the Zuhr Salaat at Mina. The recitation of the Talbiyah should not be neglected at any time if performing Ifraad and Qiraan.

One should remain at Mina up to the time Fajr Salaat has been performed there while darkness is still prevalent. One should attempt to be close to the Masjid Khaif, and then proceed towards Arafaat after sunrise. (Ninth of Zul Hajj). From Makkah to Arafaat is about 22km.

At Arafaat one should rest for a while and after Zawaal one should go the Masjid-un-Namirah where, Zuhr and Asr Salaats will be performed together behind the Imaam or his deputy. This will take place after the Imaam has delivered two Khutbahs between which he will sit for a while. These two Farz Salaats will be proceeded by one common Azaan and two individual Iqaamats. One may only combine these two Salaats subject to two conditions. (1) Ihraam (2) Following the Imaam (i.e. Imaam leading the congregation in the Masjid-un-Namirah).

No Nafl Salaat should be preformed between these two Farz Salaats. If a person is unable to perform these Salaats behind the Imaam, he should perform each one separately at its respective times and he should not combine them. After performing the Salaat with the Imaam, one should proceed towards the Mawqif (the place of halting) which is the entire plain of Arafaat except a place called Batn-e-Urnah. After Zawaal, a bath should be taken in preparation for one’s stay here. Then one should try to be stationed near the mountain of Mercy (Jabal-ur-Rahmah), facing the Qibla, reciting the Takbeer, Kalimah, Talbiyah and supplicating towards Allah Ta’ala with hands outstretched like a person begging for food. Here one should pray with utmost earnestness and sincerity for himself, his parents and family. He should try to shed tears as this is a sign of acceptance.

A person should not be negligent and lax or lazy on this day since he may not have another opportunity for a very long time. Remaining upon one’s conveyance during this period is best. Standing whilst making dua is superior to sitting.

Once the sun sets, the Imaam of Hajj and the rest of the people will proceed to Muzdalifah very calmly. From Arafaat to Muzdalifah is about 8.5km. Those wishing to hasten could do so provided there is no inconvenience to others. One should not rush and harm others since all this is haraam.

At Muzdalifah, one should settle close to the mountain of Quza, avoiding the centre of the valley to allow the passage of other travellers. Here Maghrib and Esha should be performed with a common Azaan and Iqamah. However, if any Nawafil are performed or any activity transpires between the two Farz Salaats, the Iqamah should be repeated. It is not permissible to perform the Maghrib Salaat on the road to Muzdalifah. If someone performed Maghrib en route, it would have to be repeated at Muzdalifah if one reaches Muzdalifah before dawn (Subh Saadiq).

It is Sunnah to spend the night at Muzdalifah. Once dawn breaks, the Imaam will lead the Fajr Salaat while darkness still prevails. Everyone will then remain in any part of Muzdalifah except Batn-e-Muhassar where they will again exert themselves making dua to Allah Ta’ala to make them realise their goals and ambitions as He had done for Nabi (saw) at this place. Once sufficient light spreads, everyone will proceed to Mina before sunrise where they will set up camp.

At Mina they will begin by pelting the Jamratul Aqabah (Big Shaytan) from the centre of the valley, using seven pebbles, resembling the small splintered pieces of shattered earthen pot. It is preferable to collect these pieces at Muzdalifah or from the road towards Mina.

It is Makrooh to :-

a) Gather these from amongst those at the Jumarah.
b) Pelt from the top of the valley due to the harm it poses to others.
c) Pick up these stones from any place without discretion.
d) To break any large stone or rock to derive these pebbles.
e) Use impure pebbles. These pebbles should be washed to be certain of their purity since an act of worship I performed with them. However, if one pelts with impure pebbles, it will be valid, although Makrooh.

Recitation of the Talbiyah will stop when the first pebble has been thrown. The method of pelting is to hold the pebble with the thumb and index finger because it is easier and more degrading to Shaytaan. Some people think that Shaytaan is hurt with more aggressive throwing. This is incorrect. Shaytaan loves undisciplined acts of anger. Being in control at such a time is therefore more degrading to Shaytan than when one is not in control of one’s emotions and actions. The Sunnah method is to pelt with the right hand. The pebble should be placed on the back of the thumb aided by the index finger. Five arms length should separate the Jumarah from the person pelting )if possible). If the stone falls at the feet or strikes an obstacle, thereby hindering its flight, the pelting should be repeated. If the stone falls and lands close to the Jumarah (as demarcated) it will suffice even though it does not strike it directly. Takbir should be recited with every pebble.

Thereafter, the Mufrid could slaughter an animal if he desires, following which he must shave all his hair or trim it, although shaving is better. Shaving even the quarter of the head is sufficient. Trimming means to cut the equivalent of a finger-tip length off every portion of the head. With the act of shaving, everything which is not allowed during the state of Ihraam becomes Halaal for the Muhrim except intercourse. The person should leave for Makkah on the same day or the following day or the day thereafter.

In Makkah, the Tawaaf of Ziyaraat (which consists of seven rounds) should be made, after which conjugal relations with one’s wife also becomes permissible. The best of these days for the Tawaaf of Ziyaraat is the first. If a person delays it until after these three days, then the sacrifice of an additional goat becomes obligatory upon him because of his delay of a Waajib act.

After this, one returns to Mina where one should stay once again. Once the sun crosses its Meridian (Zawaal) on the second day of Ayyaam-e-Nahr (11th Zul Hajj), all three Jamaraat will be pelted, beginning with the one closest to Masjid-e-Khaif. This one will be pelted with seven pebbles while on foot, calling out the Takbeer with every pebble. Then one should halt a while, raise the hands and make any dua one desires, praise Allah Ta’ala and express Durood and Salawaat upon Nabi (saw). Forgiveness should also be sought for one’s parents and Mu’min brothers.

Thereafter, the next Jamarah (pillar) should be stoned just as the preceding one was done and here again dua should be made.

Finally, the Jamara-tul-Aqabah will be pelted, following which no dua is made. On the third day of the Ayyam-e-Nahr (12th Zul Hajj), all three Jamaraat should be pelted again, after Zawaal in the like manner.

If someone is in a hurry, he may leave for Makkah before sunset of this day. However, if he delays his departure to after sunset then it would be Makrooh without any penalty on him. Those choosing to stay on at Mina should again pelt on the fourth day (13th Zul Hajj). This pelting is permissible before Zawaal although it Is more virtuous after Zawaal. It will be Makrooh to pelt before sunrise. Every pelting at a single Jamarah which is to be followed by another pelting should be done on foot, to facilitate the making of dua after it. If it not to be followed by another pelting then it can be done from a conveyance, to allow immediate departure without a dua. It is Makrooh to spend the nights of pelting in any place besides Mina.

When travelling to Makkah, one should alight at Muhassab for a short while. Upon entering Makkah, another Tawaaf comprising the normal seven rounds should be completed without Ramal or Sa’ee if these two had already been done on a previous occasion. This is called the Tawaaf of Widaa. It is also termed the Tawaaf Sadr. This Tawaaf is Waajib except upon the residents of Makkah and upon those still to remain in Makkah for a while. Thereafter two Rakaats should be performed after which ZamZam water should be drunk facing the Kaabah. One should drink to one’s fill, taking many breaths in-between while gazing at the Kaabah each time. Some ZamZam should be poured on the body if possible, or just the face and head should be sprinkled with it. Any permissible dua may be made while drinking. The following dua is reported to have been made by Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (ra):

“O Allaah I ask You for beneficial knowledge, abundant sustenance and cure from every ailment”

Nabi (Sollallahu alaihi wasallam) said:

“The water of ZamZam is for whatever purpose it is drunk”
(i.e. whatever dua is made upon its consumption will be accepted).

After drinking ZamZam it is Mustahab to approach the door of the Kaabah, kiss its doorframe, place the chest and face against the Multazam, grasp the cloth of the Kaabah and humble oneself before Allah Ta’ala. Any dua concerning the affairs of the Dunya and Aakhira may by made as well as the following:

“O Allaah this is Your house which you have made blessed and a means of guidance for mankind. Oh Allaah just as You have guided me to this act (of Hajj), accept it from me and do not make this my last visit to Your house . O Most Merciful of the Merciful, grant me the good fortune from Your infinite Mercy to return here until You are pleased with me”.

The Multazam is amongst those places in Makkah where duas are most accepted. There are fifteen such places which Kamaal bin Humaan (rhu) has enumerated from a treatise of Hasan Basri (rhu) as follows:

1. During Tawaaf on the Mataaf.
2. At the Multazam.
3. Below the Mizaab (water let-out of the Kaabah)
4. Within the Ka’bah itself.
5. When drinking ZamZam (at the well).
6. Behind the Maqaam-e-Ibrahim (as).
7. At Safaa
8. At Marwah.
9. During the Sa’ee at Safaa and Marwah.
10. At Arafaat.
11. At Muzdalifah.
12. At Mina.
13. At the first Jamarah.
14. At the second Jamarah.
15. At the third Jamarah.

Mention has also been made of the acceptance of duaaa upon the sighting of the Ka’bah. It is Mustahab to enter the blessed Ka’bah if the opportunity avails itself without harming anyone. Upon entering, one should adopt Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam)’s position for Salaat. This place is in front of one when one’s back faces the door. Between the Musallee and the wall there should be a distance of approximately three arms-length. After performing Salaat, the cheek should be placed against the wall and forgiveness should be sought from Allah Ta’aala and He should be glorified with Praises. Thereafter Hamd, Tasbeeh, the Kalimah and Takbir as well as any other duaaas should be recited at every pillar in the Ka’bah with utmost respect. The green area between the two pillars is not the place where Nabi (Salllallahu alayhi wasallam) performed Salaat. Contrary to what people say, there is no truth in the erroneous and fabricated claim about the “Urwatul Wuthqaa” being the high part of the Ka’bah’s wall. The peg at the centre of the Ka’bah is termed the navel of thew world by some people. The exposing of the navels, and also the concealed parts of their bodies, and placing the navel on this peg are actions without proof.

When the Haajji has completed his farewell Tawaaf, he should walk away backwards fixing his gaze upon the Ka’bah, weeping, or, at least attempting to do so and grieving at ones departure from the beloved Ka’bah. In this manner, one should leave the Masjid. Makkah should be left from the door of Bani Shayba from the Thania Sufla.

A woman will act in the same way as a man does in Hajj, except that:

She will not expose her head, and will hand a veil before her face supported by something which will not allow the veil to touch the face.
She will not raise her voice when reciting the Talbiyah.
She will not do the Ramal nor jog between the Green Lights, but she will maintain her normal walking pace by making Tawaaf and when walking between Safaa and Marwah.
She will not shave off her hair nor trim it the way men do.
She is permitted to wear less loose fitting (obviously not tight-fitting) clothing.
She should not crowd with the men for Istilaam of the Hajr Aswad.

Thus the Hajj of a Mufrid (called Hajj-e-Ifraad) has been described. The Hajj of a Mutamatte (called Hajj-e-Tamattu) is more superior in status to the Hajj of the Mufrid. Similarly, the Hajj of Qaarin (called Hajj-e-Qiraan) is superior to that of Tamattu.

 

Qiraan

THE SPIRITUAL PERFORMANCE OF HAJJ
QIRAAN-HAJJ

This means to combine the Ihraam of Hajj with that of Umra. After performing the two rakaats of Salaat of Ihraam one should recite the dua.

Thereafter the Talbiyya is recited. Upon entering Makkah, the Tawaaf of Umrah (consisting of seven rounds)is performed wherein Ramal is carried out in the first three rounds. Thereafter two rakaats are performed followed by the walk up in Safaa wherein duaaa is made together with the recitation of the Takbir, Kalimah, Talbiyah and Durud upon Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Thereafter one descends towards Marwah jogging between the Meelain. Then seven rounds are completed in a like manner which completes the Umrah. (Umrah is the Sunnah practice). Then the Tawaaf of Qudoom (arrival) is performed for the Hajj, after wchich all the acts of Hajj as mentioned earlier will be completed.

Once the person has pelted the Jamartul Aqabah on the day of Nahr (10th Zil Hijjah), the sacrifice of a goat/sheep or seventh portion of a camel/cow or buffalo will be Waajib (compulsory) upon him. If a person is unavle to sacrifice an animal, he should observe three fasts before the onset of the Day of Nahr (10th) within the months of Hajj, even though it be in Makkah after the Ayyaam-e-Nahr. It will be permissible to fast at random (i.e. interspcing the fasts with days wherein no fast is kept). One does not have to keep them consecutively.

 

Tammattuu

THE SPIRITUAL PERFORMANCE OF HAJJ
TAMMATTUU-HAJJ

This means to enter initially into the Ihraam of Umrah only at the Meeqaat and after the traditional two rakaats of Ihraam, to read the dua.

Thereafter the Talbiya should be consistently recited until reaching Makkah, where its recitation will terminate upon the performance at the first Tawaaf. Ramal should be made. After this, the two rakaats of Salaat of Tawaaf should be read and the Sa’e at the Safaa and Marwah as described before. Thereafter, if one had not brought his own Hadi (sacrificial animal) with him from home, he will have his head sheaved or trimmed after which everything once again becomes Halaal for him including relations with one’s wife. He will now emerge from Ihraam and remain out of Ihraam until donning another. If he had brought a Hadi with him (which is uncommon today) he will not be free of his Ihraam until after Hajj.

Once the day of Tarwiyah (8th Zil Hijjah) arrives, the Mutamatti will don his Ihraam for Hajj from within the Haram (i.e. anywhere within Makkah and its Surrounding areas without having to do so, from the areas of “Hill” (i.e. the various Meeqaats). He will then proceed to Mina (as described earlier) and after arriving here for the second time (after Arafaat and Muzdaliafh and pelting the Jmarah-tul-Aqabahupon the day of Nahr), it will be compulsory for him to slaughter a goat or sheep or a seventh potion of a camel, cow or buffalo. If he is unable to do so he will have to observe three fasts before the day of Nahr and Seven after Hajj as a Qaarin would. If he had not fasted before the day of Nahr (10th), then the sacrifice of a goat, etc… become compulsory upon him, (he will have to figure out a way of doing so) and no fasting or charity will substitute this obligation.

 

Transgressions

THE SPIRITUAL PERFORMANCE OF HAJJ
TRANSGRESSIONS OF HAJJ

These are of two types:

  1. Transgressions of the Ihraam;
  2. Transgressions of the Haraam – this type is not solely restricted to the person in Ihraam (Muhrim).

The transgressions perpetrated by the Muharim are numerous.
Some are penalised by a Damm (i.e sacrificing a goat/sheep), while others are panalised by a Damm by Sadaqah which entails a charity of half Saa’ of wheat, or the cash equivalent thereof.

(One saa’=270 tolas and 7.5 tolas =87.48 grams =2.1825 troy oz.)

Others are penalised by lesser penalties such as the market values of certain animals killed. This penalty may also be increased because of erreors.

The transgressions penalised by the Damm are:

  1. When a mature Muhrim applies perfume to any complete limb;
  2. Dyes his head with Henna (Mendhi);
  3. Oils his hair with olive oil or the like;
  4. Wears fitting sewn garments;
  5. Covers his head for a complete day;
  6. Shaves a quarter of his head; or part of his body from which blood is to be occupied; or anyone from his armpits; or the pubic area; or his nape;
  7. Paring the nails of both hands and feet in one sitting; or pairing the nails of a single hand or single foot;
  8. Omitting a compulsory (Waajib) act from amongst those mentioned earlier;
  9. Clipping the moustache if the amount clipped equals to a quarter of the beard. If less is clipped e.g. half of a quarter beard, then the cash equivalent of half a Damm will be imposed, etc.

The forthcoming are transgressions require the paying of Sadaqah of half a Saa’ of wheat or its cash equivalent.

  1. When a Muhrim applies perfume to an area less than that of a limb;
  2. Wears tight fitting sewn garment or covers the head for a duration of less than an entire day;
  3. Shaves less than a quarter of his head;
  4. Cuts a single nail. This applies to every individual nail cut (i.e. half Saa’ of wheat for every nail cut) unless the total amount (i.e. sum of all the individual Saas total to the equivalent of Damm), then in this case a little less should be given as desired. For example if five finger – nails are cut individually on separate occasions, an amount slightly less than the equivalent of a Damm becomes binding;
  5. Tawaaf-e-Qudoom or Sadr (Widaa) is performed without wudhu. If performed in a state of Janaabat ( without ghusl) then sacrificing a goat (damm) is compulsory;
  6. A single Shaut (round) is omitted from the Tawaaf Sadr. Similarly, for every Shaut missed or every stone omitted at any of the Jamrats ( if the number of Shauts or stones omitted are less than three). However, if four (4) or more are omitted then the entire act of Tawaaf or pelting would be nullified and Damm may have to be given. If the value of the individual Sadaqah exceeds that of a Damm, then any small desired amount may be deducted (which is) equal to or exceed the Damm;
  7. Shaving another persons head, or paring his nails;
  8. If a person needs to apply perfume or prohibited clothing or have his head sheaved due to valid Shari reason he can either give the Damm, (three Saa’s to six poor people) or fast for three days.

The following transgressions require less than half a Saa’ of wheat as recompense.

  • If one kills or louse or a locust. In this case he may give in charity any desired amount.

These transgressions are atoned by the market value of the hunted animal. Should a Hajji kill a huntable animal or bird, two knowledgeable and just people should estimate the value of the animal in accordance with its value at the place it was killed or the nearest place in the vicinity. If its value equals to that of a Hadi animal, the transgressor has two options. He may either buy the animal and slaughter it for charitable distribution, or he may purchase some wheat (or flour) to the equivalent value which should then be distributed amongst the poor at a ratio of half a Saa to every person. Alternatively (if he cannot afford this) he may fast for the some number of days as the people he had to feed (i.e. if he had to feed ten poor people, he has to fast for ten days). If there still remains a residue of less than half a Saa, it should be given in charity or a complete fast kept in lieu of it.

The value of a resultant transgression will also become obligatory if an animal is injured. Also if feathers of a bird which are not necessary for flight are removed, or the hair of any animal, or if any such limb is severed which will not render the animal totally helpless. If such an injury is afflicted which completely cripples the animal to the extent that is unable to offer any defence or escape from an adversary, then the full value of the animal will have to be paid out. The same applies to the plucking of a birds wings or breaking its egg.

The penalty of a goat will not be sufficient for the killing of a predatory animal. However, is the person was attacked by the animal and he killed it in self-defence, then no penalty is due on him. Fasting will not serve as recompense for that person who is not in Ihraam who kills a wild animal of the Haram, neither will it suffice in lieu of cutting any grass or tree of the Haram which grows on its own and was not grown by any person. Using the grass of the Haram for grazing purposes or cutting it is also forbidden except the type of grass called Idkhir and Mushrooms.

  • No penalty is levied for the killing of a crow, kite (type of carnivorous bird), scorpion, rat snake, rabid dog, mosquitoes, flee, tick, tortoise or any other animal which is not usually hunted.

 

Best Day

THE SPIRITUAL PERFORMANCE OF HAJJ
THE BEST DAY

The best of all days is the Day of Arafaa, the ninth of Dhil Hijjah. If it happens to be on a Friday, such a day of Arafaa is more excellent than seventy pilgrimages on a day other than Friday. The author of the ‘miraj ad-Diraya’ narrates this when he said: “It has correctly transmitted from the Rasul of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) that he said:

“The most excellent of all days is the day of Arafaa. Should it happen to be on a Friday,
It is more excellent than seventy pilgrimages”.

This is mentioned in the “Tajrid as-Sihah bi-Alamat al Mautta Az- Zayla’i”, and also by the commentator of “Kanz”.

According to Imaam Abu Hanifa (RA), to live in the neighbourhood of makkah is ‘disliked’ by the law, because one who lives there is unable to fulfil the duties towards the sacred house. The two companions of Imaam Abu Hanifa (RA), however, held the view that it is ‘not dislike’ to live in the neighbourhood of makkah.

 

Hadi Animal

THE SPIRITUAL PERFORMANCE OF HAJJ
THE HADI ANIMAL

The least of all these animals is the goat. Others include the camel, cow sheep and all those animals which are permissible to slaughter at Eid of Adha. Sacrificing a goat will suffice as Damm for all the transgressions except in two instances.

  1. Performing the Tawaaf Ziyaarat while in need of an obligatory bath.
  2. Engaging in intercourse after being at Arafat and before shaving the head.

In these two cases, a large animal carrying seven shares (Budana i.e. Camel, cow etc.) will have to be sacrificed.

Only the Hadi due for Tamattuu and Qiraan have to be slaughtered on the day of Nahr (10th). All Hadis, however, have to be slaughtered within the boundaries of the Haram’s geographical location except that Hadi which is of an exceptional and mandatory (Nafl) nature and which, due to some ailment, had to be sacrificed en-rout. No wealthy person may consume this Hadi. In the matter of distribution, no distinction will be drawn between the poor person residing in the Haram and others (i.e. all may benefit equally).

After the sacrifice, the animal’s skin and horns should be given in charity and may not be given to the butcher as remuneration for his services. These animals may not be ridden useless in dire necessity, neither should they be milked. If the destination is distant (necessitating milking), the milk may be given in charity and the animals’ udders sprinkled with cold water (to suppress refilling and the resultant inconvenience of milking while on journey).
If a person vows to perform Hajj on foot, it will become incumbent upon him and he may not mount a conveyance until the completion of the Tawaaf Ziyaraat. If he does so before this then he will have to sacrifice an animal in recompense.

Walking is superior to riding for an able person.

 

 

 

 

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