Salah

Times

TIMES OF SALAH

There are 5 times of obligatory (Farz) Salah

1. Time of FAJR (Dawn Salah ) It starts from true dawn daybreak, when a horizontal whiteness appears on the horizon until a little before sunrise.

2. Time of ZUHR (Noon Salah) Its starts when the sun passes its meridian (zenith after Zawwal) and ends when the shadow of an object used to measure doubles.

3. Time of ASR (Late afternoon Salah) Its starts when the shadow of an object used to measure doubles at sunset.

4. Time of MAGHRIB (Sunset Salah) Begins at sunset until Red twilight disappears from the horizon.

5. Time of ISHA and WITR (Evening and Witr Salah) Starts from when all redness disappears from the horizon until True Dawn (day break)

The Witr cannot be read before Esha since it is necessary to maintain the sequence. While performing Hajj, can combine the Zuhr and Asr on the plain of Arafat during the time of Zuhr on the condition that the Hajji is in Ihraam and the Jamaat is led by the Ameer of Hajj. The Hajji should combine the Maghrib and Esha at the time of Isha when in Muzdalifah. It is not permissible for the Hajji to perform the Maghrib en route to Muzdalifah.

PREFERRED SALAH TIMES

1. It is Mustahab (preferable, praiseworthy) for men to perform Fajr when there is more brightness in the sky. For women it is Mustahab when it is not bright.

2. In summer Salah should be performed at a time when the day is cooler, and should hasten it in winter, except when it is overcast.

3. It is permissible to delay the Asr as long as the sun does not change colour (becomes yellow).To delay more than this is highly disliked. In overcast conditions Asr should be hastened (read earlier than its preferred time).

4. Maghrib should also be hastened except when overcast.

5. Similarly, Isha is to be delayed up to the first third (1/3) of the night but hastened when overcast. To delay until midnight is permissible but after this it is highly disliked.

6. To delay the Witr to the last part of the night on condition that one is certain of being awake at that time.

PROHIBITED SALAAT TIMES

There are 3 times during which no Farz or Wajib Salaat can be performed (which became due upon a person before the start of these times).

1. From sunrise to after it has risen,

2. When the sun is at its zenith at midday until it shifts from its position,

3. When the sun turns yellow until it sets. However, those Salaat which becomes incumbent during these times can be performed within them, but will be Makrooh (undesirable), e.g.

  1. Janazah Salaat once it is ready or
  2. Sajdah Tilawat of an Ayat recited in these times.

Likeswise it is valid although, Makrooh to perform the Asr of the same day after the sum turns yellow. In the prohibited times all Nafle (optional) Salaat are Makrooh Tahreemi (highly detested) even though they have some cause e.g.

  1. An oath was taken to perform the Salaat.
  2. The 2 Rakats, which become necessary after performing Tawaaf.

TIMES WHEN NAFLE SALAAT IS MAKROOH

1. After the rise of True Dawn (except the 2 Sunnats of Fajr);

2. After Fajr;

3. Before Asr;

4. Before Maghrib Salaat;

5. When the Imam climbs on the Mimber (pulpit) for the Kutbah (sermon) and until he completes the Salaat;

6. When the Iqamat is called (except for the sunnats of Fajr which may be performed even at that time);

7. Before Eid Salaat, even at home;

8. After the Eid Salaat in the Masjid or Eidgah;

9. Between the combined Salaats on the plains of Arafat and Muzdalifah during Hajj;

10. When the time remaining for performing the Farz Salaat is very little;

11. When one needs to relieve oneself;

12. When food is brought in one’s presence and one desires it;

13. When anything is present which prevents the mind from concentrating on the Salaat and Impairs the submission of the mind to Allah by it.

Procedure

Procedure for Salah

<blobkquote>Salaat is made obligation on the believers to be observed at its appointed time” (Q4:103)</blockquote>

THE METHOD OF PERFORMING SALAAT FOR MEN

When a man intends to perform Salaat, he should remove his hands from his sleeves. Then he should raise his hands to the ears, palms facing Qibla and fingers neither spread nor closed together. This should be coupled with the making the intention of that Salaat. Thereafter he should place the right hand upon the left, just below the navel (as previously described) immediately after the Tahrima without delay.

Now the Thana will be read:

Subhanaka, Allahumma, wa bihamdika, wa tabarasmuka wa ta’ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghayruk.

Pure are You, Ya Allaah. Praise belongs to You. Blessed is Your name. Exalted is Your dominion. There is no illah but You.

Every Musalli should read Thana. Then the Ta’awuz is read silently for the Qiraat. The Masbuq (late comer) will also read it but not the Muqtadi (follower).

Ta’awuz is:

Audhu billahi mina shaytaunir rajeem

I seek the protection of Allah from Satan the rejected.

Then read Tasmia silently. Tasmia should be read only before Surah Fatiha in every Rakat. (It is also valid to recite it before the Surah following the Fatiha).

Tasmia is:

Bis Milla hir Rahma nir Raheem.

In the name of Allah, most Gracious, Most Merciful.

Then Surah Fatiha should be read. After the Fatiha the Imaam and the followers should say Aamin silently (i.e. voice should be audible to oneself). Then a Surah or three Ayats should be read. Then say Allahu Akbar and calmly bow into Ruku, keeping the head and back at the same level, clasping the knees with the hands, spreading the fingers and recite this Tasbeeh three times:

Subhana Rabbi yal Adheem

Glorified is my Rabb, the Greatest

[The saying of Allahu Akbar should start with the bowing]

Then lift the head calmly, saying:

Sami Allahu li man Hamida

[Allaah hears the one who praises Him]

Rabbana lakal Hamd

Rabb, to You belongs all types of complete praise

This is for the Imam and the Munfarid. The Muqtadi should only say Rabbana lakal Hamd.

Then proceed to Sajdah saying Allahu Akbar, placing the knees on the ground first, then the hands and thereafter the face between the palms.

Prostrate with the nose and forehead and do so in a state of ease and calm. Glorify Allaah by reciting this Tasbeeh at least three times. Read while the head is on the ground.

Subhana Rabbi yal a’la

Glorified is my Rabb, the most Exalted

The abdomen should be kept away from the thighs, the arms away from the armpits and if there is no crowd, direct the toes and the fingers towards the Qibla.

After the first Sajdah, the Musalli should sit up calmly placing the hands upon the thighs. Thereafter recite Allahu Akbar and perform the second Sajdah with ease. Once more the Tasbeeh ‘Subhana Rabbi yal a’la’ is read at least three times with the same Sajdah posture. Thereafter lift the head from the Sajdah saying “Allahu Akbar” and stand up, without supporting the hands against the ground and without sitting. (Rise preferably on the toes). This completes one Rakat.

The second Rakat is performed like the first except there is no Thana and Ta’awuz.

Once the man has completed the two Shadaahs of the second Rakat, he should place his left foot flat upon the ground and sit thereon whilst keeping the right foot upright. The toes of the right foot should face the Qibla. The hands should be placed upon the thighs with the fingers apart.

Tashahud narrated by Hadhrat Ibn Masuud (ra) should be recited:

At athiyyatu lillahi, was salawatu wat tayibatu. As salaamu alayka ayyu han nabiyyu, wa Rahmatullahi wa barakatu. As salaamu alayna wa ala ibadillhis sauliheen. [Ashadu alla ilaha Illallahu wa Ashadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa Rasuluhu.

“All types of perfect greeting are for Allaah and so too are all prayers and all that is good. Salutation is on you, O Nabi and also on you are Allaah’s mercy and blessings. Salutations to us and the pious servants of Allaah. I bear witness that there is no illah but Allaah and I bear witness that Muhammad (saw) is His servant and Rasul.”

An indication with the forefinger of the right hand will be made, lifting it when reading the negation (i.e. when saying ‘LA’) and lowering it when reading the affirmation (when saying ‘Illallah). Nothing will be added to the Tashahud in the Qaidah (sitting) of a four Rakat Salaat. Surah Fatiha will be read in all Rakats after the first two Rakats. On completing of all Rakats, one will sit and read the Tashahud as above. Then read Durood upon Nabi (saw).

Allahumma salli ala Muhammadew, wa ala ali Muhammadin, Kama sallayta ala Ibrahima wa ala ali Ibrahima Innaka Hamidum Majeed.Allahumma barik ala Muhammadew,wa ala ali Muhammadin, Kama barakta ala Ibrahima, wa ala ali Ibrahima, Innaka hamidum majeed.

“Allah, grant mercy on Muhammad and to the members of the family of Muhammad, as You granted mercy to Ibrahim and to the members of the family of Ibrahim. Allah bless Muhammad and the members of the family of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim and the members of the family of Ibrahim. Surely You are All Laudable, All Glorious.”

Then a dua is recited from the Qur’an or Hadith. Usually this is read:

Allahumma inni dhalamtu nafi dhulman kathiran, wa innahu La yaghfirudh dhunuba illa anta fagh fir li maghfiratam min indika war hamni, innaka antal ghafur uf Raheem

“Allaah, I have done tremendous wrong to my soul, and no one but You can forgive sins, so completely forgive me through Your special favour and bestow mercy upon me. Surely it is You who are the Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

The Sallam is made first to the right and then to the left.

As salamu Alaykum wa Rahmatullaah

May peace be upon you, and also Allaah’s mercy.

The intention of Salaam will be for those who are present and details have already been previously explained.

For men to perform Salaat with Jamaat is Sunnat Muakkadah.

 

Women

THE SALAAT OF WOMEN

The Salaat of women is similar to that of men, apart from some variations in certain Shar’ie Directives that shall be outlined below. Women should study these Shar’ie Directives carefully and perform their Prayers accordingly.

1. At the time of ‘Takbeer-e-Tahreema’, the woman should lift up her hands up to the shoulders in such a manner that they are in line with the shoulders.

2. At the time of ‘Takbeer-e-Tahreema’, she should keep her hands underneath her veil, robe etc.

3. After having executed the ‘Tahreema’, she should now place her hands on the chest.

4. The palm of the right hand should rest on the back of the left hand.

5. The fingers of each hand should be kept together so that they touch one another.

6. When going to Ruku, she should bend just enough to let the fingers reach the knees.

7. The hands should be placed on the knees with the fingers of each hand pressed close together.

8. Both arms should be kept close to the sides of the body.

9. The ankles should be placed together so that they touch each other.

10. The knees should be drawn close to each other so that they touch.

11. The Sajdah should be performed in such a manner that the knees are the first to be placed on the ground.

12. Thereafter, the hands should be placed on the ground in a way that they will finally rest in line with the ears.

13. The fingers should be kept together.

14. The head should be placed between the two hands.

15. While in Sajdah, both the nose and the forehead should touch the ground.

16. The fingers and toes should face the Qiblah.

17. The feet should be kept straight but pointing outward towards the right.

18. While in Sajdah, her body should be kept contracted so that the stomach is pressed well against the sides of the body.

19. Her elbows should be placed flat on the ground.

20. After the second Sajdah of the second Rakat, she should sit in Qaidah in such a way that her posterior rests on the ground.

21. The right thigh should be placed near the left thigh.

22. Both feet should be pointing outwards towards the right.

23. Both hands should be placed on the thighs with the fingers kept together. The tips of the fingers should be close to the knees but not holding the knees or hanging over them.

24. Like the man, the woman should also, when reading the ‘Kalima-e-Shahaadat’ in Tashahud, close her tiny finger and the finger adjoining it (this is called ‘Aqd’) and at the same time, form a circle with the thumb and the middle finger and lift the right index finger when reading the words “La Ilaha” (this sign is to indicate the Oneness of Allaah Ta’ala). Then the finger should be dropped when saying “Illallah”. However, the closing, and circling mode of the fingers should be retained until the end of the Qaidah.

 

Conditions

FACTORS REQUIRED FOR VALIDITY OF SALAAT

There are 29 factors necessary for Salaat to be valid:

1. Purity from major and minor impurity (also from menstruation and post childbirth bleeding).

2. Purity of the body, clothing and place of Salaat.
3. The place where the feel, hands, knees and forehead are to be placed have to be pure.

4. “Satre Aurat”- covering of those parts that are prescribed by Shariat (navel to knee for men and complete body for women).

5. Facing Qibla: a person who sees the Kaabah must face it and for those who do not see it, even if they are in Makkah, it is ‘obligatory’ only to face in the direction of the Kaabah.

6. Presence of the time of Salaat (obligatory).

7. To be firmly convinced that the time of Salaat has already started.

8. Niyyat (intention) of Salaat.

9. Saying “Allahu Akbar” (Allaah is the greatest)-“Tahrima” at the start of the Salaat without separating it from the intention (e.g. by speaking).

10. Saying Tahrima while standing, before going for Ruku (before bowing).

11. The Tahrima should be made before the intention.

12. To recite the Tahrima silently so that one cannot hear himself.

13. For the Muqtadi (one following Immam) to make intention of following the Imaam.

14. To specify which “obligatory” salaat is being performed.

15. The intention for Wajib salaat has to be specific.

16. To stand for the Farz and Waajib salaat. One is allowed to sit for Nafl salaat even without an excuse.

17. Qiraat (recitation of Quraan) even though it be one Ayat in the first 2 Rakats of the Farz salaats and in every Rakat of the Nafl sunnat and Witre salaats. There are no specified portions of the Quraan to be read for the salaat to be valid. The muqtadi should not recite anything but should listen attentively to the Immam and remain silent. If he reads any Qiraat it will be Makrooh Tahrimi.

18.Ruku (head and hips to be on equal level for males).

19. Sajdah should be made on a hard surface that can be felt and upon which the forehead remains stable and firm even though it upon one’s palm or the edge of a cloth. The place of Sajdha must be clean. It is necessary to prostrate with the hard part of the nose and the forehead. Prostration by by the nose only is not correct except if the forehead is injured, etc.

20. The place of prostration must be more elevated by more than half a cubit from the place of the feet. If so then prostration is not valid, except in huge crowds where one is forced to prostrate on the back of another who is performing the same Salaat.

21. To place the hands and knees on the same surface whilst in Sajdah.

22. To place at least some of the toes on the surface. To place only the outer position of the feet on the surface will not suffice.

23. Bowing (Ruku) must precede Sajdah (prostration).

24. To rise from Sajdah to a position close to sitting.

25. To return from the sitting posture the second Sajdah.

26. To sit for the Qaidah Aakhirah (last sitting) to the extent of time in which at least the Tashahhud can be read.

27. Performing the Qaidah Aakhirah (last sitting) after all acts of Salaat.

28. Performing all acts of Salaat whilst awake.

29. To have full knowledge of the procedure of Salaat and all its Fard aspects so that one knows the Sunnat aspects, and one does not perform a Fard with the intention of Nafl, etc.

 

Fard

THE FARD ACTS DURING SALAAT ARE

•Qiyam (standing)

•Qirat (reciting of a Quranic verse)

•Ruku

•Sajdah

•Some mention that Qaidah Aakhirah (to sit for the last sitting, to the extent of time in which at least the Tashahhud can be read) is also Fard.

Wajib

WAJIB ACTS OF SALAH

There are 18 Wajib acts of Salaat

1. Recitation of Surah Fathiha.

2. Reciting any other long Ayat or 3 short Ayat with Surah Fathiha in the first two Rakats of the Fard Salaat and in all Rakkahts of the Witr, Sunnat and Nafl Salaat.

3. Specifying the reading of the Sura Fathiha for the first 2 Rakats of the Fard Salaat.

4. To recite Surah Fathiha before the Surah (Ayat).

5. To make Sajdah with nose and forehead.

6. To make the second Sajdah of the first Rakkat before proceeding to any other action.

7. To perform every posture with ease and calm.

8. To perform the first sitting (Qaidah Aula).

9. To recite the Tashahhud in the first sitting (Qaidah Aula first sitting after 2 Rakkats).

10. To recite the Tashahhud in the last sitting.

11. To stand immediately for the 3rd Rakkat after the Tashahhud (without delay).

12. Making Salaam 2 times (once on the right and one to the left), to say the words “As Salaam” is Waajib, to say “Alaykum” is Sunnat-e-Mukkidah.

13. To read Dua-e-Qunoot in the Witr Salaat.

14. To recite Takbeer of the Eid Salaat.

15. Specification of the words Allahu Akbar for the start of every Salaat except the two Eids.

16. To say the Takbeer of Ruku before going in Ruku in the second Rakat of the 2 Eids.

17. For the Imaam to recite the Qirat aloud in the following Salaats Fajr, First two Rakats of Magrib and Esha (even though Qaza), Jumuah, 2 Eids, Taraweeh and Witr of Ramadhaan.

18.To recite the Qirat silently in Zhur, Asr, 3rd Rakat of Magrib, 3rd and 4th Rakat of Esha and all Nafl Salaats during the day.

The Munfarid (one performing Salaat alone and not in Jamaat) has the choice of reading audibly or not in those Salaats wherein Qirat is audible. A person performing Nafl Salaat during the night also has this choice.

If a person omitted the recitation of a Surah in the first 2 Rakats of Esha, he should read it audibly in the second two Rakats with Surah Fathiha. However if Surah Fathiha was omitted it will not be repeated in the last two Rakats, but make Sajdah Shaw (prostration of forgetfulness).

 

Sunnah

SUNNATS OF SALAAT

There are 51 Sunnats in Salaat:

1. Lifting the hands for Takbeer Tahrima (Allaahu Akbar at the start of Salaat). Up to ears for a man and up to the shoulders for a woman.

2. Spreading the fingers when saying the Tahrima.

3. The Muqtadis should recite the Tahrima simultaneously with the Imaams.

4. A man should place his right hand over the left below the navel. By placing his right palm over the back part of the left palm, at the level of the waist with the middle finger and the thumbs spread out to form a ring.

5. A woman should place her hands on the chest without forming a ring.

6. To recite Thana.

7. To recite Ta’awwuz before Qiraat.

8. To recite Bismillaah (Tasmiya) at the beginning of every Rakat before reading Surah Fathiha.

9. To recite ‘Aamin’ (Allaah accept our prayers) on the completion of Sura Fathiha.

10. To recite “Rabbanna wa lakal Hamd” after Ruku, before Sajdah.

11. To recite all the above (6-10) inaudibly.

12. Not to bow the head whilst saying Takbir Tahrima.

13. For the Imaam to recite Takbeer audibly.

14. For the Imaam to recite, “Sami Allaah li man Hamida” when rising from Ruku.

15. Men should spread their feet to the measure of 4 fingers when standing and women should keep feet together.

16. To recite from the following after Surah Fathiha. (a) Tiwale Mufassil (long Surahs in the Fajr and Zuhr. (i.e. those Surahs from and including “Surah Hujuraat” up to “Surah Burooj”). (b) Aswaate Mufassil (medium length Surah) in the Asr and Esha (i.e. those Surahs from and including “Surah Burooj” up to “Surah Bayinah”). (c) Qisaare Mufassil (short Surahs) in Magrib Salaat (i.e. those Surahs from and including “Surah Bayyinah” up to the end of the Noble Quraan).

The above Surahs are applicable to a Muqeem (non Musafir). A Musafir may read any Surah

17. To lengthen only the first Rakat of the Fard of Fajr.

18. To praise Allaah in Ruku.

19. By saying “subhana rabi yal azim” 3 times.

20. To grasp the knees with the hands in Ruku (for men).

21. Spreading the fingers in Ruku for men and not for women.

22. To keep the legs straight in Ruku.

23. To keep the back flat in Ruku for men.

24. To keep the head level to the back in Ruku (for men).

25. To lift the head and rise from Ruku.

26. To stand at ease after Ruku.

27. When making Sajdha, to place the knees on the surface first, then the hands and lastly the face.

28. Withdrawing these in the opposite way when standing from Sajdha.

29. Saying Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar) when going to Sajdha.

30. Saying Takbeer when rising from Sajdha.

31. Placing the head between the palms when performing Sajdha.

32. Glorifying Allaah in Sajdha by saying “Subhana Rabi a’l a” three times.

33.For a man to keep his stomach away from the thigh, his elbows away from his sides and forearms away from the ground.

34. For a woman to contract her body so that the stomach is pressed against the thighs.

35. Render Qaumah properly (i.e. standing for a little while between Ruku and Sajdha).

36. To sit between the two Sajdhas (Jalsa) as in Tashahud.

37. To place the hands upon the thighs during Jalsa as in Tashahud.

38. To spread the left leg and raise the right making the toes face Qibla for men.

39. A woman should place buttocks on the ground.

40. To raise the right index finger during the Tashaud, raising when saying “la ilha” and lowering when saying “illa allaahu”.

41. To recite surah Fathiha in all Rakats following the first 2 Rakats.

42. To recite Durood upon Nabi (S.A.W) during the final sitting.

43. To follow by reading a Dua, using words found in the Quraan or a Hadith but not in the words of common people.

44. To turn the face first to the right then to the left when making Salaam.
45. For the Imaam to make intention for all people following him, the angels and the pious Jinn.

46. For the person following the Imaam to include the Imaam in his intention whenever he is standing. If he is directly behind the Imaam he should include him in both the Salaams together with the people, angels and the pious Jinn.

47. For a Munfarid (one performing Salaat alone) to only intend for the angels in his salaam.

48. To say the second Salaam in a softer tone than the first.

49. The Salaam of the Muqtadi (follower) and the Imaam should be Simultaneous, (not after it).

50. To begin the Salaam from the right side.

51. The Masbooq (late comer in Salaat) should wait for the Imaam to complete both Salaams (i.e. once the Imaam starts the second Salaam). He should stand to complete Salaat.

 

Makrooh

ACTS MAKROOH (DISLIKED) IN SALAAT

There are 71 acts that are Makrooh in Salah:

  1. Intentionally leaving out a Waajib in one’s Salaat.
  2. Intentionally leaving out a Sunnat e.g playing with one’s clothing or body.
  3. During Salaat, removing pebbles (except for clearing the place for Sajdah in one movement).
  4. Cracking the fingers, even once.
  5. Intertwining the fingers.
  6. Placing the hands on the hips.
  7. Looking on either side by turning the neck.
  8. Sitting with the hips on the ground and knees raised up like a dog.
  9. Resting the forearms on the ground in Sajdah.
  10. Folding up the sleeves.
  11. Wearing only trousers despite the ability to wear a shirt.
  12. Replying to Salaam by indication.
  13. Sitting cross-legged without a valid excuse.
  14. Tying the cloth around the head, leaving the middle of the head exposed.
  15. To plait the hair (by men).
  16. Lifting of clothing when making Sajdah.
  17. Letting lose of a cloth from head or shoulders proudly or neglectfully.
  18. To wrap oneself with clothing from which hands cannot be removed.
  19. Wearing a cloth by bringing it below the right armpit and throwing the ends upon the left shoulders.
  20. Reciting Qur’an in a posture other than Qiyaam.
  21. Lengthening the first Rakat of any Salaat.
  22. Lengthening the second Rakat of any Salaat.
  23. Constant reception of Surah in same Rakat of the Farz.
  24. To read a Surah which proceeds the one already recited.
  25. To read 2 Surahs in a 2 Rakat Salaat leaving out a Surah between them.
  26. To smell any fragrance deliberately.
  27. Fanning oneself with a cloth once or twice.
  28. Turning away the fingers and toes from the direction of the Kaabah in Sajdah and others.
  29. To put the hands away from the knees in Ruku.
  30. To spread the thighs in Qaidah.
  31. To spread the thighs between the two Sajdahs (in Jalsah).
  32. Not putting the right hand on the left hand on the left in Qiyaam.
  33. Yawning.
  34. Closing the eyes.
  35. Raising the gaze towards the sky.
  36. Spreading the arms (stretching).
  37. Slight action, which does not break Salah.
  38. Catching a louse and killing it.
  39. Covering the nose or the mouth.
  40. Putting something in the mouth which interferes with Masnoon Qiraat.
  41. Making Sajdah on the fold of the turban.
  42. In Salaat to make Sajdah on the picture of a living being.
  43. To make Sajdah with only the forehead when there is nothing wrong with the nose.
  44. Performing Salah along a path.
  45. Performing Salah in a bathroom.
  46. Performing Salah in a graveyard.
  47. Performing Salah in the toilet.
  48. On someone else’s property without consent.
  49. To perform Salah near impurity.
  50. Performing Salah by suppressing tendency to urinate or
  51. Excrete.
  52. Deliberately pass air through the anus. This breaks the Salah and is disliked.
  53. When there is no fear of missing the time of Salah or Jamaat, then it is Mustahab to free oneself from these tendencies.
  54. Performing Salah with shabby clothing which are not always free from dirt.
  55. Keeping the head uncovered unnecessarily.
  56. Performing Salah when one is extremely hungry for food which is served.
  57. Anything else which will occupy the mind and disturb one’s concentration.
  58. Counting Ayats by hand.
  59. Counting Tasbih by hand during Salaat.
  60. For the Imaam to stand completely inside the Mihrab,
  61. For the Imaam to stand alone on a place or platform which is one cubit higher than the rest.
  62. Standing behind a line that has a gap.
  63. To wear clothing with pictures of living beings.
  64. For pictures to be above the head or
  65. Behind, or
  66. In front,
  67. Or on the sides except if they are very small or the heads have been removed or they are of inanimate objects.
  68. When there is a light, a furnace container, burning coal, or people sleeping directly in front of the Musallee.
  69. Wiping harmless sand from the forehead which does not disturb anyone.
  70. To specify a Surah other than the Fatiha, however if done for ease or it was read by Nabi (saw) then it is not Makrooh.
  71. Not to place a barrier (sutra) in such a place where someone is likely to pass in front.

 

Nullifiers

ACTS THAT NULLIFY SALAH

These are those acts that nullify the Salah.

  1. Uttering a word even if it be forgetfully or mistakenly spoken during Salah.
  2. Making a Dua that resembles ordinary speech in Salaat, which do not have words from Qur’an or Ahadith.
  3. Greeting (even though forgetfully).
  4. Replying to the greeting audibly.
  5. Shaking hands.
  6. “Amle Katheer” – performing such an action by which an observer has the impression that one is certainly not performing Salah.
  7. Turning the chest away from the Qibla.
  8. Eating anything (by inserting from outside) even though it be little.
  9. Eating from between the teeth anything that is the size of a pea.
  10. Drinking anything.
  11. Clearing the throat without excuse.
  12. Saying ‘uf’.
  13. Saying ‘ah’.
  14. Saying ‘uh’.
  15. Crying aloud because of some difficulty, (i.e. not due to the mention of Jannat or Jahannam).
  16. Replying to a sneeze by saying “Yarhamula Allaah” (may Allaah bestow mercy on you).
  17. Replying to one who has asked if Allaah has any partner by saying “There is no illah but Allaah”.
  18. Replying to bad news by saying “Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raaji’un” (Surely we belong to Allaah, and it is to Him we shall return).
  19. Replying to happy news by saying “Alhamdu lillah” (All praise to Allaah).
  20. Replying to surprise news by saying “La illaha Illallah” or by saying “Subhan Allah” (Glory be to Allaah).
  21. Reciting any part of the Qur’an with the intention of replying to a questioner e.g. “ya Yahya, hold fast to the Book”.
  22. The news of availability of water for one who has made Tayammum.
  23. Expiry of time for one who has made Masah on leather socks.
  24. The removal of these leather socks.
  25. Learning of a Qur’anic ayat by an ignorant devotee.
  26. Discovery of clothing by a naked person.
  27. Obtaining ability to bow and prostrate by one performing Salah by indication.
  28. For a “Sahhib-e-Tarteeb” (one who has never missed Salaat) to recall any missed Salaat.
  29. When an Imam appoints an unworthy deputy (one not capably).
  30. The rising of the sun during Fajr Salaat, or the sun passing Zawwal during the two Eids or the start of Asr time in the case of Jummah.
  31. The splinter falling off due to the healing of the wound.
  32. Deliberately breaking one’s Wudhu or its breaking beyond one’s control (i.e. someone else’s action).
  33. The ending of the Ma’zoors incapability.
  34. Unconsciousness.
  35. Insanity.
  36. Becoming impure (in need of ghusl) by being aroused.
  37. For a mature person (one who excites sexual desire) to come in the same line in a regular Salah which both began together in a single place having no barrier in between whilst the Imaam had included her in his Niyyat.
  38. The exposure of the “Aurat”.
  39. Reading the Qur’an by a devotee who has already incurred minor impurity.
  40. A person delaying to the extent of one posture after Wudhu breaking while in wakefulness could not return with fresh Wudhu.
  41. Passing beyond nearby water for some other or further off water.
  42. Going out of the Masjid thinking that Wudhu has been broken.
  43. Passing rows in a place besides the Masjid, thinking that Wudhu has broken.
  44. Turning away thinking that:
  45. One has not made Wudhu, or
  46. Time of Masah has expired, or
  47. One has impurity on him.
  48. All these nullify Salah even though the person did not leave the Masjid.
  49. Prompting someone (in recitation other that one’s Imaam).
  50. Saying Takbeer with the intention of changing to another Salaat besides the same one.
  51. All the above nullify Salah if they occur before the final sitting posture up to reciting of Tashahud.
  52. Prolonging the Hamza in the Takbeer.
  53. Reading any Ayat from Qur’an that was not memorised.
  54. Performing a posture of Salah, e.g. Ruku with the “Aurat” being exposed or with Najasat (impurity), which is forbidden.
  55. For a Muqtadi to proceed into a posture before the Imaam.
  56. For a Masbooq to follow the Imaam in “Sajdah Sahw” (prostration in compensation for forgetfulness) without cause to.
  57. Not repeating the final Qaidah after performing a Sajdah Tilawat of Salaat, which one had remembered to perform after the Qaidah.
  58. Not to repeat any posture which was performed whilst asleep.
  59. Loud laughing of a Masbooq’s or Imaam or intentional breaking of Wudhu after final sitting (Qaidah).
  60. Making Salaam after 2 Rakats, in a Salah of more than 2 Rakats.

 

ACTS THAT DO NOT NULIFY SALAAT

Salah will not be nullified in the following cases:

  1. By the Musallee looking at any writing and understanding it.
  2. By eating that which is stuck between the teeth provided that it is smaller than a pea.
  3. By someone passing across the place of Sajdah, however the passer will be sinful.

 

 

Sajdah Sahw

SAJDAH SAHW

This refers to the performance of 2 additional Sujoods on order to compensate for an error on the Salaat.

However, this error must have been done by mistake and not intentionally as this would break the Salaat.

METHOD

1. After reciting the Tashahhud only in the Qaidah Akhirah (last sitting) say:

“Assala mu alaikum wa rah matullaaah”, while turning the head to the right only (i.e. only one Salaam).

2. After making this one Salaam perform two Sajdahs as usual, sit in Qaidah and complete the Salaat as usual, i.e. recite Tashahhud, Durood, Dua and Salaam.

THE PRINCIPLES OF SAJDAH SAHW

Sajdah Sahw becomes Wajib under the following circumstances:-

  1. Any Wajib act being omitted.
  2. Any Wajib act being displaced, e.g. Performing it before time or later than its stipulated place.
  3. Any Wajib act being repeated.
  4. Any Wajib act being altered, e.g. loud Qiraat being recited in place of silent Qiraat, etc.
  5. Any Farz act being displaced, e.g. observing it before time or later than is stipulated.
  6. Any Farz act being repeated.

 

Imam

THERE ARE SEVEN CONDITIONS FOR AN IMAM TO LEAD ABLE MEN

  1. He must be a Muslim male.
  2. He must be an adult not a child.
  3. He must be sane.
  4. The Imaam must be male.
  5. He must be able to recite the Qur’an from memory.
  6. He must not be constantly bleeding from the nose.
  7. He should not stammer nor should there be an absence of any pre-condition of Salah, e.g. Taharat, Satre Aurat, etc.

CONDITIONS FOR FOLLOWING THE IMAM

There are 13 conditions when following the Imam

  1. The Niyyat of the follower [Muqtadi] is to be simultaneous with the Tahreema.
  2. If there are females in the Jamaat, the Imaam must make Niyyat of leading them.
  3. The Imaam’s heels have the be in front of the Muqtadi’s.
  4. Condition of Imaam not to be inferior [lower e.g. Imaam performing Nafl Salaat whilst Muqtadi performing Farz] to that of the Muqtadi.
  5. The Imaam should not be performing a different Farz than the Muqtadi.
  6. There is no row of women between the Imaam and the followers.
  7. There is no river between the Imaam and the followers [a river in which small boats sail].
  8. There is no roads upon which carts [cars etc.] pass.
  9. There should not be a wall which can cause confusion about the Imaam’s movement. If there is no confusion because he is audible or visible, then it is correct to follow him.
  10. The Imaam should not be mounted whilst the followers are on foot [or vice versa].
  11. The follower should also not be mounted on a different animal/vehicle other than the Imam’s.
  12. The follower should not be one boat and the Imam in another boat, which is not attached to the follower’s. If attached, then the following is valid.
  13. If according to the follower’s opinion, the Imam’s Salah has broken (e.g. by flowing blood or vomiting a mouthful and he is sure that the Imaam did not repeat his ablution) then it is not valid to follow the Imaam.

It is valid for one who has made Wudhu to follow someone who has made Tayammum, also for one who has washed the limb to follow one who has made Masah (over bandage etc.), also for one standing to follow one sitting and for a hunch back or one performing Salah by signs to follow anther of the same type; and for one performing Nafl to follow one performing Farz. If it became known that the Imaam’s Salaat was nullified, the follower should try his best to notify all the followers to repeat their Salah.

 

THE RIGHT OF IMAMATE

If amongst those present, neither the owner of the premises, nor the appointed Imaam, nor the Ruler are present, then the following persons will be most deserving of Imamate (in order of preference).

  1. The most learned in laws of Salah
  2. The best reciter of the Qur’an
  3. The most pious
  4. The oldest
  5. The most virtuous in character
  6. The most handsome
  7. The one of most birth
  8. The one with the best (sweetest) voice
  9. The one with the cleanest clothes

If everyone is on a par, then lots should be drawn or the people can decide. The opinion of the majority will be considered. If the people choose someone besides the one who is most deserving, then they have done wrong.

THE IMAMATE OF THE FOLLOWING PERSONS IS MAKROOH (DISLIKED)

  1. A slave
  2. A blind person
  3. A person who is ignorant and not pious
  4. A Faasiq (a sinner who knows of Deen)
  5. A Bidati (an innovator in Deen)

 

THE ORDER OF THE SAFF (ROWS)

The rows are formed by:-

  1. Men first.
  2. Then children.
  3. Followed by hermaphrodites.
  4. Then by women.
  5. In Jamaat the first row is best, followed by the second and so on.

 

WHAT THE MUQTADI SHOULD DO AND SHOULD NOT DO AFTER THE IMAM HAS COMPLETED THE SALAH

  1. If the Imaam performs the Salaam before the Muqtadi can complete the Tashahud, then the Muqtadi should complete it.
  2. However, if the Imaam raised his head before the Muqtadi can complete reciting 3 Tasbihs of Ruku or Sajdah, the Muqtadi should follow the Imaam.
  3. If the Imaam performs an extra Sajda or stands up by mistake after the final Qaidah, the Muqtadi will not follow suit and when the Imam thereafter consolidates the extra Rakat by making a Sajdah, the Muqtadi should make Salaam on his own.
  4. If the Imaam stands up before the final Qaidah by mistake, the Muqtadi should wait for him.
  5. If the Muqtadi makes Salaam before the Imaam consolidates the Rakat by making Sajdah, then the Farz Salaat of the Muqtadi is nullified.
  6. It is Makrooh for the Muqtadi to make Salaam after the Imaam’s Tashahud, and before the Imam’s Salaam.

 

Jamat

REASONS FOR MISSING SALAAT WITH JAMAAT

One of the following 18 factors absolve one from performing Salaat with Jamaat

  1. Torrential rain
  2. Severe cold
  3. Fear
  4. Heavy darkness
  5. Captivity
  6. Blindness
  7. Paralysis
  8. Loss of hand or leg
  9. Sickness
  10. Being crippled
  11. Mud
  12. Chronic illness
  13. Old age
  14. Discussing Islamic Jurisprudence in a group causing Jamaat Salaat to be missed
  15. Arrival of food which one is eager to eat because of extreme hunger
  16. Start of journey
  17. Attending to a sick person who, if left alone will be harmed
  18. Intense wind during the night (not during the day)
  19. If one did not attend Jamaat due to any of the above permissible reasons, then one will receive the same reward as that for Jamaat

 

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